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CAPEC-696: Load Value Injection

Attack Pattern ID: 696
Abstraction: Detailed
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+ Description
An adversary exploits a hardware design flaw in a CPU implementation of transient instruction execution in which a faulting or assisted load instruction transiently forwards adversary-controlled data from microarchitectural buffers. By inducing a page fault or microcode assist during victim execution, an adversary can force legitimate victim execution to operate on the adversary-controlled data which is stored in the microarchitectural buffers. The adversary can then use existing code gadgets and side channel analysis to discover victim secrets that have not yet been flushed from microarchitectural state or hijack the system control flow.
+ Extended Description
This attack is a mix of techniques used in traditional Meltdown and Spectre attacks. It uses microarchitectural data leakage combined with code gadget abuse. Intel has identified that this attack is not applicable in scenarios where the OS and the VMM (Virtual Memory Manager) are both trusted. Because of this, Intel SGX is a prime target for this attack because it assumes that the OS or VMM may be malicious.
+ Likelihood Of Attack


+ Typical Severity

Very High

+ Relationships
Section HelpThis table shows the other attack patterns and high level categories that are related to this attack pattern. These relationships are defined as ChildOf and ParentOf, and give insight to similar items that may exist at higher and lower levels of abstraction. In addition, relationships such as CanFollow, PeerOf, and CanAlsoBe are defined to show similar attack patterns that the user may want to explore.
ChildOfStandard Attack PatternStandard Attack Pattern - A standard level attack pattern in CAPEC is focused on a specific methodology or technique used in an attack. It is often seen as a singular piece of a fully executed attack. A standard attack pattern is meant to provide sufficient details to understand the specific technique and how it attempts to accomplish a desired goal. A standard level attack pattern is a specific type of a more abstract meta level attack pattern.663Exploitation of Transient Instruction Execution
Section HelpThis table shows the views that this attack pattern belongs to and top level categories within that view.
+ Execution Flow
  1. Survey target application and relevant OS shared code libraries: Adversary identifies vulnerable transient instruction sets and the code/function calls to trigger them as well as instruction sets or code fragments (gadgets) to perform attack. The adversary looks for code gadgets which will allow them to load an adversary-controlled value into trusted memory. They also look for code gadgets which might operate on this controlled value.

    Utilize Disassembler and Debugger tools to examine and trace instruction set execution of source code and shared code libraries on a system.
  1. Fill microarchitectural buffer with controlled value: The adversary will utilize the found code gadget from the previous step to load a value into a microarchitectural buffer.

    The adversary may choose the controlled value to be memory address of sensitive information that they want the system to access
    The adversary may choose the controlled value to be the memory address of other code gadgets that they wish to execute by hijacking the control flow of the system
  2. Set up instruction to page fault or microcode assist: The adversary must manipulate the system such that a page fault or microcode assist occurs when a valid instruction is run. If the instruction that fails is near where the adversary-controlled value was loaded, the system may forward this value from the microarchitectural buffer incorrectly.

    When targeting Intel SGX enclaves, adversaries that have privileges can manipulate PTEs to provoke page-fault exceptions or microcode assists.
    When targeting Intel SGX enclaves, adversaries can indirectly revoke permissions for enclave code through the “mprotect” system call
    An adversary can evict selected virtual memory pages using legacy interfaces or by increasing physical memory utilization
    When attacking a Windows machine, wait until the OS clears the PTE accessed bit. When the page is next accessed, the CPU will always issue a microcode assist for re-setting this bit
  1. Operate on adversary-controlled data: Once the attack has been set up and the page fault or microcode assist occurs, the system operates on the adversary-controlled data.

    Influence the system to load sensitive information into microarchitectural state which can be read by the adversary using a code gadget.
    Hijack execution by jumping to second stage gadgets found in the address space. By utilizing return-oriented programming, this can chain gadgets together and allow the adversary to execute a sequence of gadgets.
+ Prerequisites
The adversary needs at least user execution access to a system and a maliciously crafted program/application/process with unprivileged code to misuse transient instruction set execution of the CPU.
The CPU incorrectly transiently forwards values from microarchitectural buffers after faulting or assisted loads
The adversary needs the ability to induce page faults or microcode assists on the target system.
Code gadgets exist that allow the adversary to hijack transient execution and encode secrets into the microarchitectural state.
+ Skills Required
[Level: High]
Detailed knowledge on how various CPU architectures and microcode perform transient execution for various low-level assembly language code instructions/operations.
[Level: High]
Detailed knowledge on compiled binaries and operating system shared libraries of instruction sequences, and layout of application and OS/Kernel address spaces for data leakage.
[Level: High]
The ability to provoke faulting or assisted loads in legitimate execution.
+ Indicators
File Signatures for Malicious Software capable of abusing Transient Instruction Set Execution
+ Consequences
Section HelpThis table specifies different individual consequences associated with the attack pattern. The Scope identifies the security property that is violated, while the Impact describes the negative technical impact that arises if an adversary succeeds in their attack. The Likelihood provides information about how likely the specific consequence is expected to be seen relative to the other consequences in the list. For example, there may be high likelihood that a pattern will be used to achieve a certain impact, but a low likelihood that it will be exploited to achieve a different impact.
Read Data
Access Control
Bypass Protection Mechanism
Execute Unauthorized Commands
+ Mitigations
Do not allow the forwarding of data resulting from a faulting or assisted instruction. Some current mitigations claim to zero out the forwarded data, but this mitigation still does not suffice.
Insert explicit “lfence” speculation barriers in software before potentially faulting or assisted loads. This halts transient execution until all previous instructions have been executed and ensures that the architecturally correct value is forwarded.
+ References
[REF-735] Jo Van Bulck, Daniel Moghimi, Michael Schwarz, Moritz Lipp, Marina Minkin, Daniel Genkin, Yuval Yarom, Berk Sunar, Daniel Gruss and Frank Piessens. "LVI - Hijacking Transient Execution with Load Value Injection". <>. URL validated: 2022-09-23.
+ Content History
Submission DateSubmitterOrganization
(Version 3.8)
CAPEC Content TeamThe MITRE Corporation
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Page Last Updated or Reviewed: September 29, 2022