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Schema Documentation - Schema Version 2.7.1

Document version: 2.7.1    Date: 2015-11-09

This is a draft document. It is intended to support maintenance of CAPEC, and to educate and solicit feedback from a specific technical audience. This document does not reflect any official position of the MITRE Corporation or its sponsors. Copyright © 2015, The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to redistribute this document if this paragraph is not removed. This document is subject to change without notice.

Author: CAPEC Team
URL: http://capec.mitre.org/documents/schema/index.html

Table of Selected Content
Table of Selected Content

Activation Zone

Schema path: Activation Zone

This element describes the area within the target software that is capable of executing or otherwise activating the payload of an injection-based attack of this type. The activation zone is where the intent of the attacker is put into action. The activation zone may be a command interpreter, some active machine code in a buffer, a client browser, a system API call, etc.


Alternate Term

Schema path: Alternate Terms > Alternate Term

This element contains alternate terms by which this attack pattern may be known and a description to explain the context in which the term may be relevant. This is not required for all entries and should only be included where appropriate.


Alternate Term Description

Schema path: Alternate Terms > Alternate Term > Alternate Term Description

This element provides context to each Alternate_Term by which this attack pattern may be known.


Alternate Terms

Schema path: Alternate Terms

This element contains one or more Alternate_Term elements, each of which contains other names used to describe this attack pattern.


Architectural Paradigm

Schema path: Technical Context > Architectural Paradigms > Architectural Paradigm

Architectural paradigm characterizes the target using an enumerated list of supported paradigms in which this attack pattern is possible and relevant. USAGE: This element is represented as an enumerated list to facilitate normalization and classification of attack patterns


Architectural Paradigms

Schema path: Technical Context > Architectural Paradigms

This element represents a container of one or more architectural paradigms in which this attack pattern is possible and relevant. Architectural paradigm characterizes the target using an enumerated list of paradigms utilized by the target.


Attack Motivation-Consequence (Attack Motivation-Consequences)

Schema path: Attack Motivation-Consequences > Attack Motivation-Consequence

What is the attacker trying to achieve by using this attack? This is not the end business/mission goal of the attack within the target context but rather the specific technical result desired that could be leveraged to achieve the end business/mission objective. In order to assist in normalization and classification, this field involves a selection from an enumerated list of defined motivations/consequences which is currently incomplete and will grow as new relevant possibilities are identified. This information is useful for aligning attack patterns to threat models and for determining which attack patterns are relevant for a given context.


Attack Motivation-Consequence (Attack Motivation-Consequences)

Schema path: Attack Motivation-Consequences > Attack Motivation-Consequence

Attack motivation consequence represents the desired technical results that could be achieved/leveraged by this attack pattern, represented as an enumerated list of defined adversary motivations/consequences.


Attack Motivation-Consequences

Schema path: Attack Motivation-Consequences

What is the attacker trying to achieve by using this attack? This is not the end business/mission goal of the attack within the target context but rather the specific technical result desired that could be leveraged to achieve the end business/mission objective. This information is useful for aligning attack patterns to threat models and for determining which attack patterns are relevant for a given context.


Attack Motivation-Consequences

Schema path: Attack Motivation-Consequences

This element represents a container of one ore more attack motivation consequences. Attack motivation consequence represents the desired technical results that could be achieved/leveraged by this attack pattern, represented as an enumerated list of defined adversary motivations/consequences. USAGE: This element is used to identify specific technical results that could be leveraged to achieve the adversary's business or mission objective. This information is useful for aligning attack patterns to threat models and for determining which attack patterns are relevant for a given context.


Attack Pattern

Schema path: Attack Pattern

This element is an individual attack pattern.


Attack Pattern Catalog

Schema path: Attack Pattern Catalog

This is the enumerated catalog of common attack patterns.


Attack Phase

Schema path: Attack Phase

Segment the attack steps into the various phases of attack. One of three phases "Explore", "Experiment", or "Exploit." Each phase should appear at most once, and attack steps should be grouped by what kind of activities the attacker is carrying out. The exploration and experimentation phases may or may not occur during a particular attack, because the attacker may already know exactly how to exploit a system.


Attack Prerequisite (Attack Prerequisites)

Schema path: Attack Prerequisites > Attack Prerequisite

This field describes an individual attack prerequisite.


Attack Prerequisite (Attack Prerequisites)

Schema path: Attack Prerequisites > Attack Prerequisite

This field describes an individual attack prerequisite.


Attack Prerequisites

Schema path: Attack Prerequisites

This field describes the conditions that must exist or the functionality and characteristics that the target software must have or behavior it must exhibit for an attack of this type to succeed.


Attack Prerequisites

Schema path: Attack Prerequisites

An attack prerequisite is a condition that must exist in order for an attack of this type to succeed.


Attack Step

Schema path: Attack Phase > Attack Step

Brief description of an individual action step in carrying out the attack


Attack Step Description

Schema path: Attack Step Description

This field contains a brief description of the attack step.


Attack Step Technique Description

Schema path: Attack Step Technique Description

This field contains a brief description of the attack step technique.


Attack Step Title

Schema path: Attack Step Title

This field contains a short descriptive title for the attack step. It should be kept as short as possible but also clearly convey the nature of the attack step being described.


Attacker Skill or Knowledge Required (Attacker Skills or Knowledge Required)

Schema path: Attacker Skills or Knowledge Required > Attacker Skill or Knowledge Required

This field describes the level of skill or specific knowledge required by an attacker to execute this type of attack.


Attacker Skill or Knowledge Required (Attacker Skills or Knowledge Required)

Schema path: Attacker Skills or Knowledge Required > Attacker Skill or Knowledge Required

Attacker skill or knowledge required describes the level of skills or specific knowledge needed by an attacker to execute this type of attack.


Attacker Skills or Knowledge Required

Schema path: Attacker Skills or Knowledge Required

This field describes the level of skills or specific knowledge required by an attacker to execute this type of attack.


Attacker Skills or Knowledge Required

Schema path: Attacker Skills or Knowledge Required

This element represents a container of one or more attacker skill or knowledge required. Attacker skill or knowledge required describes the level of skills or specific knowledge needed by an attacker to execute this type of attack.


Audience

Schema path: View Attributes > View Audience > Audience

The Audience element provides a reference to the target audience or group for this view.


Availability Impact

Schema path: CIA Impact > Availability Impact

This element describes the typical impact of this pattern on the availability characteristics of the targeted software and related data.


Background Detail (Background Details)

Schema path: Background Details > Background Detail

This element contains background information regarding the entry or any technologies that are related to it, where the background information is not related to the nature of the category itself. It should be filled out where appropriate.


Background Detail (Background Details)

Schema path: Background Details > Background Detail

This element contains background information regarding the entry or any technologies that are related to it, where the background information is not related to the nature of the attack pattern itself. It should be filled out where appropriate.


Background Details

Schema path: Background Details

This structure contains one or more Background_Detail elements, each of which holds information regarding the entry or any technologies that are related to it, where the background information is not related to the nature of the entry itself. It should be filled out where appropriate.


Background Details

Schema path: Background Details

This structure contains one or more Background_Detail elements, each of which holds information regarding the entry or any technologies that are related to it, where the background information is not related to the nature of the entry itself. It should be filled out where appropriate.


Block

Schema path: Block

Block is a Structured_Text element consisting of one of Text_Title, Text, Code_Example_Language, or Code followed by another Block element. Structured_Text elements help define whitespace and text segments.


Block Nature

Schema path: Block > Block Nature

This attribute identifies the nature of the content containedwithin the Block.


CIA Impact

Schema path: CIA Impact

This element characterizes the typical relative impact of this pattern on the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the targeted software.


CWE ID (Related Weakness)

Schema path: Related Weaknesses > Related Weakness > CWE ID

The CWE_ID is a field that exists for all weaknesses enumerated in the Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE). It is a unique value that allows each weakness to be unambiguously identified. The CWE_ID field for the attack pattern contains the value of the CWE_ID for the specific related weakness.


CWE ID (Related Weakness)

Schema path: Related Weaknesses > Related Weakness > CWE ID

The element contains the Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE) ID of the exploited software weakness.


Code

Schema path: Code

Presentation Element: This element is used to define a line of code.


Code Example Language

Schema path: Code Example Language

Presentation Element: This element is used to identify the programming language being used in the following block of Code


Comment

Schema path: Comment

Presentation Element: This element is used to define a comment in code.


Common Consequence ID

Schema path: Common Consequence ID

The Common_Consequence_ID stores the value for the related Common_Consequence entry identifier as a string. Only one Common_Consequence_ID element can exist for each Common_Consequence element (ex: CC-1). However, Common_Consequences across CAPEC with the same ID should only vary in small details.


Compound Element Abstraction

Schema path: Compound Element Abstraction

The Abstraction defines the abstraction level for this attack pattern. The abstraction levels for Compound_Elements and Attack Patterns are the same. For example, if the Compound_Element is a chain, and all elements of the chain are Meta level, then the Compound_Element Abstraction attribute is Meta. This is required for all Compound_Elements.


Compound Element Structure

Schema path: Compound Element Structure

The Structure attribute defines the structural nature of this compound element - that is, composed of other attack patterns concurrently, as in a composite, or consecutively, as in a chain.


Confidentiality Impact

Schema path: CIA Impact > Confidentiality Impact

This element describes the typical impact of this pattern on the confidentiality characteristics of the targeted software and related data.


Consequence Note

Schema path: Consequence Note

This subelement provides additional commentary about this consequence.


Consequence Scope

Schema path: Consequence Scope

This subelement identifies an individual consequence that may result from this attack pattern.


Consequence Technical Impact

Schema path: Consequence Technical Impact

This subelement describes the technical impacts that can result from successful execution of this attack pattern.


Content History

Schema path: Content History

This element is used to keep track of the author of the attack pattern entry and anyone who has made modifications to the content. This provides a means of contacting the authors and modifiers for clarifying ambiguities, merging overlapping contributions, etc. This should be filled out for all entries.


Contribution

Schema path: Content History > Contributions > Contribution

This element houses the subelements which identify the contributor and contributor's comments related to this entry. This element has a single attribute, Contribution_Mode, which indicates whether the contribution was part of feedback given to the CAPEC team or actual content that was donated.


Contribution Comment

Schema path: Content History > Contributions > Contribution > Contribution Comment

This element provides the author with a place to store any comments regarding the content of this attack patterns entry, such as assumptions made, reasons for omitting elements, contact information, pending questions, etc.


Contribution Date

Schema path: Content History > Contributions > Contribution > Contribution Date

This element should provide the date on which this content was authored in YYYY-MM-DD format.


Contribution Mode

Schema path: Content History > Contributions > Contribution > Contribution Mode

This attribute indicates whether the contribution was part of feedback given to the CAPEC team or actual content that was donated.


Contribution Organization

Schema path: Content History > Contributions > Contribution > Contribution Organization

This element should identify the author's organization.


Contributions

Schema path: Content History > Contributions

This structure contains one or more Contribution elements.


Contributor

Schema path: Content History > Contributions > Contribution > Contributor

This element should contain the name of the author for this entry.


Description

Schema path: Description

This field provides a description of this Category. Its primary subelement is Description_Summary which is intended to serve as a minimalistic description which provides the information necessary to understand the primary focus of this entry. Additionally, it has the subelement Extended_Description which is optional and is used to provide further information pertaining to this attack pattern.


Description

Schema path: Description

This field provides a description of this Structure, whether it is an Attack Pattern, Category or Compound Element. Its primary subelement is Description_Summary which is intended to serve as a minimalistic description which provides the information necessary to understand the primary focus of this entry. Additionally, it has the subelement Extended_Description which is optional and is used to provide further information pertaining to this attack pattern.


Description

Schema path: Description

This element represents a detailed description of an attack pattern. Content may include a summary and a list of steps taken by the attacker. USAGE: This element can be used to capture a range of descriptive information. Comprehensive descriptions might include attack trees, exploit graphs, etc., to more clearly elaborate this type of attack.


Description (Indicator-Warning of Attack)

Schema path: Indicators-Warnings of Attack > Indicator-Warning of Attack > Description

This element provides an explanatory description of the indicator warning of attack.


Description (Obfuscation Technique)

Schema path: Obfuscation Techniques > Obfuscation Technique > Description

This element provides an explanatory description of the obfuscation technique.


Description (Payload Activation Impact)

Schema path: Payload Activation Impact > Description

This element provides an explanatory description of the payload activation impact.


Description (Probing Technique)

Schema path: Probing Techniques > Probing Technique > Description

This element provides an explanatory description of the probing technique.


Description Summary (Description)

Schema path: Description > Description Summary

This description should be short and should limit itself to describing the key points that define this entry. Further explanation can be included in the extended description element. This is required for all entries.


Description Summary (Description)

Schema path: Description > Description Summary

This description should be short and should limit itself to describing the key points that define this entry. Further explanation can be included in the extended description element. This is required for all entries.


Environments

Schema path: Environments

References the defined environments where this attack step technique is applicable.


Environments (Indicator)

Schema path: Indicator > Environments

References the defined environments where this indicator of susceptibility is applicable.


Example-Instance

Schema path: Examples-Instances > Example-Instance

This element represents an exploit description and may also provide an external reference and/or a range of related vulnerabilities.


Example-Instance Description

Schema path: Examples-Instances > Example-Instance > Example-Instance Description

This element describes in detail a specific example or exploit instance of this attack pattern. USAGE: This element is used to define the context of an attack, targeted weaknesses or vulnerabilities, the sequence of attack steps, and the resulting impact of attack success or failure.


Example-Instance Related Vulnerabilities

Schema path: Examples-Instances > Example-Instance > Example-Instance Related Vulnerabilities

This element represents a container of one or more instance related vulnerabilities. An instance related vulnerability identifies vulnerabilities targeted by this exploit instance of the attack.


Example-Instance Related Vulnerability

Schema path: Examples-Instances > Example-Instance > Example-Instance Related Vulnerabilities > Example-Instance Related Vulnerability

This element identifies specific vulnerabilities targeted by this exploit instance of the attack. USAGE: This element is used to reference industry-standard identifiers such as Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) numbers and/or US-CERT numbers.


Examples-Instances

Schema path: Examples-Instances

This element represents a container of one or more example instances. An example instance details an explanatory example or demonstrative exploit instance of this attack, USAGE: This element is used to to help the reader understand the nature, context and variability of the attack in more practical and concrete terms.


Explanation

Schema path: Typical Likelihood of Exploit > Explanation

This element provides qualifications or assumptions regarding the estimated likelihood.


Extended Description (Description)

Schema path: Description > Extended Description

This element provides a place for details important to the description of this entry to be included that are not necessary to convey the fundamental concept behind the entry. This is not required for all entries and should only be included where appropriate.


Extended Description (Description)

Schema path: Description > Extended Description

This element provides a place for details important to the description of this entry to be included that are not necessary to convey the fundamental concept behind the entry. This is not required for all entries and should only be included where appropriate.


Framework

Schema path: Technical Context > Frameworks > Framework

Framework characterizes the target using an enumerated list of supported frameworks in which this attack pattern is possible and relevant. USAGE: This element is represented as an enumerated list to facilitate normalization and classification of attack patterns


Frameworks

Schema path: Technical Context > Frameworks

This element represents a container of one or more frameworks in which this attack pattern is possible and relevant. Frameworks characterizes the target using an enumerated list of frameworks utilized by the target.


ID

Schema path: ID

This attribute provides a unique identifier for the entry. It will be static for the lifetime of the entry. In the event that this entry becomes deprecated, the ID will not be reused and a pointer will be left in this entry to the replacement. This is required for all Categories.


ID

Schema path: ID

This attribute provides a unique identifier for the entry. It will be static for the lifetime of the entry. In the event that this entry becomes deprecated, the ID will not be reused and a pointer will be left in this entry to the replacement. This is required for all Compound_Elements.


ID (Indicator)

Schema path: Indicator > ID

This field contains a unique integer identifier for the indicator.


ID (Outcome)

Schema path: Outcome > ID

This field contains a unique integer identifier for the outcome.


ID (Security Control)

Schema path: Security Control > ID

This field contains a unique integer identifier for the security control.


ID (View)

Schema path: View > ID

The ID attribute provides a unique identifier for the entry. It will be static for the lifetime of the entry. In the event that this entry becomes deprecated, the ID will not be reused and a pointer will be left in this entry to the replacement. This is required for all Views.


Image

Schema path: Images > Image

Presentation Element: This element is used to define an image.


Image Location

Schema path: Images > Image > Image Location

This element provides the location of the image file.


Image Title

Schema path: Images > Image > Image Title

This element provides a title for the image.


Images

Schema path: Images

Presentation Element: This element is used to define an image.


Indicator

Schema path: Indicator

These are indicators that the application may or may not be susceptible to the given attack step (not necessarily the pattern as a whole).


Indicator-Warning of Attack

Schema path: Indicators-Warnings of Attack > Indicator-Warning of Attack

Indicator warning of attack describes activities, events, conditions or behaviors that may indicate that an attack of this type is imminent, in progress or has occurred.


Indicator Description

Schema path: Indicator > Indicator Description

This field contains a brief description of the indicator.


Indicators-Warnings of Attack

Schema path: Indicators-Warnings of Attack

This element represents a container of one or more indicator warning of attack. Indicator warning of attack describes activities, events, conditions or behaviors that may indicate that an attack of this type is imminent, in progress or has occurred.


Injection Vector

Schema path: Injection Vector

This element details the mechanism and format of an input-driven attack of this type. Injection vectors take into account the grammar of an attack, the syntax accepted by the system, the position of various fields, and the ranges of data that are acceptable.


Integrity Impact

Schema path: CIA Impact > Integrity Impact

This element describes the typical impact of this pattern on the integrity characteristics of the targeted software and related data.


Keyword

Schema path: Keywords > Keyword

Keyword correspond to text strings used to tag and search CAPEC catalog data.


Keywords

Schema path: Keywords

This element represents a container of one or more keywords. Keyword correspond to text strings used to tag and search CAPEC catalog data.


Language

Schema path: Technical Context > Languages > Language

Language characterizes the target using an enumerated list of implementation languages in which this attack pattern is possible and relevant. USAGE: This element is represented as an enumerated list to facilitate normalization and classification of attack patterns.


Languages

Schema path: Technical Context > Languages

This element represents a container of one or more languages in which this attack pattern is possible and relevant. Languages characterizes the target using an enumerated list of languages utilized by the target.


Likelihood

Schema path: Typical Likelihood of Exploit > Likelihood

This element reflect the likelihood of attack success on a scale of {Very Low, Low, Medium, High, Very High}, in consideration of the attack prerequisites, targeted weakness, attack surface, skills and resources required, as well as effectiveness of likely implemented blocking solutions.


Local Reference ID

Schema path: Local Reference ID

The Local_Reference_ID is an optional value for the related Local Reference entry identifier as a string. Only one Local_Reference_ID element can exist for each Reference element (ex: R.78.1). Text citing this reference should use the format [R.78.1].


Maintenance Note

Schema path: Maintenance Notes > Maintenance Note

This element describes a significant maintenance task within this entry that still need to be addressed, such as clarifying the concepts involved or improving relationships. It should be filled out in any entry that is still undergoing significant review by the CAPEC team.


Maintenance Notes

Schema path: Maintenance Notes

This element contains one or more Maintenance_Note elements which each contain significant maintenance tasks within this entry that still need to be addressed, such as clarifying the concepts involved or improving relationships. It should be filled out in any entry that is still undergoing significant review by the CAPEC team.


Method of Attack (Methods of Attack)

Schema path: Methods of Attack > Method of Attack

This field describes the mechanism of attack used by this pattern. In order to assist in normalization and classification, this field involves a selection from an enumerated list of defined vectors which is currently incomplete and will grow as new relevant vectors are identified. This field can help define the applicable attack surface required for this attack.


Method of Attack (Methods of Attack)

Schema path: Methods of Attack > Method of Attack

Method of attack is enumerated list of defined vectors that identify the underlying mechanism(s) used in the attack. USAGE: This element is represented as an enumerated list to facilitate normalization and classification of attack patterns, and to help define the applicable attack surface required for this attack.


Methods of Attack

Schema path: Methods of Attack

This field describes the mechanism of attack used by this pattern. This field can help define the applicable attack surface required for this attack.


Methods of Attack

Schema path: Methods of Attack

This element represents a container of one or more methods of attack. Method of attack is enumerated list of defined vectors that identify the underlying mechanism(s) used in the attack.


Modification

Schema path: Content History > Modifications > Modification

This element houses the subelements which identify the modifier and modifier's comments related to this entry. A new Modification element should exist for each modification of the entry content. This element has a single attribute, Modification_Source, which indicates whether this modification was made by a CAPEC team member or an external party.


Modification Comment

Schema path: Content History > Modifications > Modification > Modification Comment

This element provides the modifier with a place to store any comments regarding the content of this attack pattern entry, such as assumptions made, reasons for omitting elements, contact information, pending questions, etc.


Modification Date

Schema path: Content History > Modifications > Modification > Modification Date

This element should contain the date of the modifications.


Modification Importance

Schema path: Content History > Modifications > Modification > Modification Importance

This attribute identifies how significant the modification is to the attack pattern with regard to the meaning and interpretation of the pattern. If a modification has a value of Critical, then the meaning of the entry or how it might be interpreted has changed and requires attention from anyone previously dependent on the attack pattern.


Modification Source

Schema path: Content History > Modifications > Modification > Modification Source

This attribute indicates whether this modification was created by a CAPEC team member or provided by an external party.


Modifications

Schema path: Content History > Modifications

This structure contains one or more Modification elements.


Modifier

Schema path: Content History > Modifications > Modification > Modifier

This element should contain the name of the person modifying this entry.


Modifier Organization

Schema path: Content History > Modifications > Modification > Modifier Organization

This element should contain the modifier's organization.


Name

Schema path: Name

The Name is a descriptive name used to give the reader an idea of what the commonality is amongst the children of this category. All words in the name should be capitalized except for articles and prepositions unless they begin or end the name. Subsequent words in a hyphenated chain are also not capitalized. This is required for all Categories.


Name

Schema path: Name

The Name is a descriptive name used to give the reader an idea of the meaning behind the compound attack pattern structure. All words in the name should be capitalized except for articles and prepositions unless they begin or end the name. Subsequent words in a hyphenated chain are also not capitalized. This is required for all Compound_Elements.


Name (Attack Phase)

Schema path: Attack Phase > Name

"Explore", "Experiment", or "Exploit."


Name (View)

Schema path: View > Name

The Name is a descriptive attribute used to give the reader an idea of what perspective this view represents. All words in the name should be capitalized except for articles and prepositions unless they begin or end the name. Subsequent words in a hyphenated chain are also not capitalized. This is required for all Views.


Name Change Date

Schema path: Content History > Previous Entry Names > Previous Entry Name > Name Change Date

This lists the date on which this name was changed to something else. Typically, this date will be closely aligned with new releases of CAPEC.


Non-Recommended Design Pattern

Schema path: Relevant Design Patterns > Non-Recommended Design Patterns > Non-Recommended Design Pattern

A non-recommended design can decrease a sofware's resistence or resilience to this type of attack, leaving the system more susceptible.


Non-Recommended Design Patterns

Schema path: Relevant Design Patterns > Non-Recommended Design Patterns

This element represents a container of one or more non-recommended design patterns. A non-recommended design can decrease a sofware's resistence or resilience to this type of attack, leaving the system more susceptible.


Note

Schema path: Other Notes > Note

This element contains any additional notes or comments that cannot be captured using other elements. New elements might be defined in the future to contain this information. It should be filled out where needed.


Obfuscation Technique (Obfuscation Techniques)

Schema path: Obfuscation Techniques > Obfuscation Technique

An obfuscation technique can be used to disguise the fact that an attack of this type is imminent, in progress or has occurred.


Obfuscation Techniques

Schema path: Obfuscation Techniques

This element represents a container of one or more obfuscation techniques. An obfuscation technique can be used to disguise the fact that an attack of this type is imminent, in progress or has occurred.


Observables (Indicator-Warning of Attack)

Schema path: Indicators-Warnings of Attack > Indicator-Warning of Attack > Observables

This element specifies detailed cyber observable patterns for potential detection of the indicator warning of attack.


Observables (Obfuscation Technique)

Schema path: Obfuscation Techniques > Obfuscation Technique > Observables

This element specifies detailed cyber observable patterns for potential detection of the obfuscation technique.


Observables (Payload Activation Impact)

Schema path: Payload Activation Impact > Observables

This element specifies detailed cyber observable patterns for potential detection of the payload activation impact.


Observables (Probing Technique)

Schema path: Probing Techniques > Probing Technique > Observables

This element specifies detailed cyber observable patterns for potential detection of the probing technique activity.


Ordinal

Schema path: Relationship Views > Relationship View ID > Ordinal

The ordinal attribute is used to determine if this relationship is the primary ChildOf relationship for this entry for a given Relationship_View_ID element.. This attribute can only have the value "Primary" and should only be included for the primary parent/child relationship.


Other Notes

Schema path: Other Notes

This element contains one or more Note elements, each of which provide any additional notes or comments that cannot be captured using other elements. New elements might be defined in the future to contain this information. It should be filled out where needed.


Outcome

Schema path: Outcome

This field captures possible outcomes for this attack step.


Payload

Schema path: Payload

This element describes the code, configuration or other data to be executed or otherwise activated as part of an injection-based attack of this type.


Payload Activation Impact

Schema path: Payload Activation Impact

This element describes the impact that the activation of the attack payload for an injection-based attack of this type would typically have on the confidentiality, integrity or availability of the target software.


Platform

Schema path: Technical Context > Platforms > Platform

Platform characterizes the target using an enumerated list of supported platforms in which this attack pattern is possible and relevant. USAGE: This element is represented as an enumerated list to facilitate normalization and classification of attack patterns


Platforms

Schema path: Technical Context > Platforms

This element represents a container of one or more platforms in which this attack pattern is possible and relevant. Platforms characterizes the target using an enumerated list of platforms utilized by the target.


Previous Entry Name

Schema path: Content History > Previous Entry Names > Previous Entry Name

This element identifies a name that was previously used for this entry.


Previous Entry Names

Schema path: Content History > Previous Entry Names

This structure contains one or more Previous_Entry_Name elements, each of which describes a previous name that was used for this entry. This should be filled out whenever a substantive name change occurs.


Probing Technique

Schema path: Probing Techniques > Probing Technique

A probing technique describes a method used to probe and reconnoiter a potential target to determine vulnerability and/or to prepare for this type of attack.


Probing Techniques

Schema path: Probing Techniques

This element represents a container of one or more probing techniques. A probing technique describes a method used to probe and reconnoiter a potential target to determine vulnerability and/or to prepare for this type of attack.


Purpose

Schema path: Purposes > Purpose

Purpose refers to the intended purpose behind the attack pattern relative to an enumerated list of attack objectives. USAGE: This element is represented as an enumerated list to facilitate normalization and classification of attack patterns


Purposes

Schema path: Purposes

This element represents a container of one or more purposes. Purpose refers to the intended purpose behind the attack pattern relative to an enumerated list of attack objectives. USAGE: This element is used to capture pattern composibility and assist with normalization and classification of attack patterns within the CAPEC catalog.


Recommended Design Pattern

Schema path: Relevant Design Patterns > Recommended Design Patterns > Recommended Design Pattern

A design pattern that is likely to increase the software’s resistance or resiliency to this type of attack.


Recommended Design Patterns

Schema path: Relevant Design Patterns > Recommended Design Patterns

This element represents a container of one or more recommended design patterns. A recommended design pattern increases the software's resistance or resilience to this type of attack.


Reference (Reference List Type)

Schema path: Reference List Type > Reference

Each Reference subelement should provide a single source from which more information and deeper insight can be obtained, such as a research paper or an excerpt from a publication. Multiple Reference subelements can exist. The sole attribute of this element is the id. The id is optional and translates to a preceding footnote below the context notes if the author of the entry wants to cite a reference. Not all subelements need to be completed, since some are designed for web references and others are designed for book references. The fields Reference_Author and Reference_Title should be filled out for all references if possible. Reference_Section and Reference_Date can be included for either book references or online references. Reference_Edition, Reference_Publication, Reference_Publisher, and Reference_PubDate are intended for book references, however they can be included where appropriate for other types of references. Reference_Link is intended for web references, however it can be included for book references as well if applicable.


Reference (References)

Schema path: References > Reference

Reference represents a documentary resource used to develop the definition of this attack pattern.


Reference Author

Schema path: Reference Author

This element identifies an individual author of the material being referenced. It is not required, but may be repeated sequentially in order to identify multiple authors for a single piece of material.


Reference Date

Schema path: Reference Date

This element identifies the date when the reference was included in the entry. This provides the reader with a time line for when the material in the reference, usually the link, was valid. The date should be of the format YYYY-MM-DD.


Reference Edition

Schema path: Reference Edition

This element identifies the edition of the material being referenced in the event that multiple editions of the material exist. This will usually only be useful for book references.


Reference ID

Schema path: Reference ID

The Reference_ID is an optional value for the related Reference entry identifier as a string. Only one Reference_ID element can exist for each Reference element (ex: REF-1). However, References across CAPEC with the same ID should only vary in small details. Text citing this reference should use the local reference ID, as this ID is only for reference library related consistency checking and maintenance.


Reference Link

Schema path: Reference Link

This element should hold the URL for the material being referenced, if one exists. This should always be used for web references, and may optionally be used for book and other publication references.


Reference List Type

Schema path: Reference List Type

The References_List_Type contains one or more Reference elements, each of which provide further reading and insight into the item. This should be filled out as appropriate.


Reference PubDate

Schema path: Reference PubDate

This field describes the date when the reference was published YYYY.


Reference Publication

Schema path: Reference Publication

This element identifies the publication source of the reference material, if one exists.


Reference Publisher

Schema path: Reference Publisher

This element identifies the publisher of the reference material, if one exists.


Reference Section

Schema path: Reference Section

This element is intended to provide a means of identifying the exact location of the material inside of the publication source, such as the relevant pages of a research paper, the appropriate chapters from a book, etc. This is useful for both book references and internet references.


Reference Title

Schema path: Reference Title

This element identifies the title of the material beingreferenced. It is not required if the material does not have a title.


References

Schema path: References

The References element contains one or more Reference elements, each of which provide further reading and insight into this attack pattern.


References

Schema path: References

The References element contains one or more Reference elements, each of which provide further reading and insight into this attack pattern.


References

Schema path: References

This element represents a container of one or more references. Reference represents a documentary resource used to develop the definition of this attack pattern.


References (View Attributes)

Schema path: View Attributes > References

The References element contains one or more Reference elements, each of which provide further reading and insight into this view. This should be filled out when the view is based on sources or projects that are external to the CAPEC project.


Related Attack Pattern

Schema path: Related Attack Patterns > Related Attack Pattern

A related attack pattern refers to an attack pattern that is dependent on or applied in conjunction with this attack pattern.


Related Attack Patterns

Schema path: Related Attack Patterns

This element represents a container of one or more related attack patterns. A related attack pattern refers to an attack pattern that is dependent on or applied in conjunction with this attack pattern.


Related Guideline

Schema path: Related Guidelines > Related Guideline

A related guideline represents a security guideline that is relevant to identifying or mitigating this type of attack.


Related Guidelines

Schema path: Related Guidelines

This element represents a container of one or more related guidelines. A related guideline represents a security guideline that is relevant to identifying or mitigating this type of attack. USAGE: It would be helpful to provide a usage reference. However links to security principle and guideline documentation on the BSI site appear to be broken. NIST SP 800-27 uses the terms principle and guideline interchangeably.


Related Security Principle

Schema path: Related Security Principles > Related Security Principle

A related security principle is a security rule or practice that impedes this attack pattern.


Related Security Principles

Schema path: Related Security Principles

This element represents a container of one or more related security principles. A principle is defined as a rule or standard for good behavior. A related security principle is a security rule or practice that impedes this attack pattern. USAGE: Usage defined in NIST SP 800-27A, "Engineering Principles for Information Technology Security", Revision A.


Related Vulnerabilities

Schema path: Related Vulnerabilities

This element represents a container of one or more related vulnerabilities. A related vulnerability refers to a specific instance vulnerability targeted for exploit by this attack pattern. USAGE: This element is used to identify specific vulnerabilities by their industry-standard Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) numbers and/or US-CERT numbers. As vulnerabilities are much more specific and localized than weaknesses, it is uncommon that an attack pattern would target a specific vulnerability. This would most likely occur if the attack pattern were targeting vulnerabilities in the underlying platform, framework, or software library.


Related Vulnerability

Schema path: Related Vulnerabilities > Related Vulnerability

This element represents a specific instance vulnerability targeted for exploit by this attack pattern.


Related Weakness (Related Weaknesses)

Schema path: Related Weaknesses > Related Weakness

This field describes an individual related weakness.


Related Weakness (Related Weaknesses)

Schema path: Related Weaknesses > Related Weakness

Related weaknesses refer to software weaknesses potentially targeted for exploit by this attack pattern.


Related Weaknesses

Schema path: Related Weaknesses

Which specific weaknesses does this attack target and leverage? Specific weaknesses (underlying issues that may cause vulnerabilities) reference the industry-standard Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE). This list should include not only those weaknesses that are directly targeted by the attack but also those whose presence can directly increase the likelihood of the attack succeeding or the impact if it does succeed.


Related Weaknesses

Schema path: Related Weaknesses

This element represents a container of one or more related weaknesses. Related weaknesses refer to software weaknesses potentially targeted for exploit by this attack pattern. USAGE: This element is used to reference industry standard Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE) data, including weaknesses that are exploited by the attack as well as weaknesses whose presence increases the likelihood or impact of the attack.


Relationship

Schema path: Relationships > Relationship

Each Relationship identifies an association between this structure, whether it is an Attack Pattern, Category, or Compound_Element and another structure. The relationship also identifies the views under which the relationship is applicable.


Relationship Chain ID

Schema path: Relationship Chains > Relationship Chain ID

This element specifies the unique ID of an individual chain element this relationship pertains to.


Relationship Chains

Schema path: Relationship Chains

This element contains a list of the individual Chains this relationship pertains to.


Relationship Nature

Schema path: Relationship Nature

The Relationship_Nature element defines the nature of the relationship between this element and the target element, such as ChildOf, HasMember or Requires to name a few.


Relationship Note

Schema path: Relationship Notes > Relationship Note

This element contains a note regarding the relationships between CAPEC entries.


Relationship Notes

Schema path: Relationship Notes

This structure houses one or more Relationship_Note elements, which each contain details regarding the relationships between CAPEC entries.


Relationship Target Form

Schema path: Relationship Target Form

The Relationship_Target_Form element defines the form of the target of this relationship, such as Category, Attack Pattern, View or Compound_Element.


Relationship Target ID

Schema path: Relationship Target ID

The Relationship_Target_ID specifies the unique ID of the target element of the relationship.


Relationship View ID

Schema path: Relationship Views > Relationship View ID

Specifies the unique ID of the individual view element to which this relationship pertains. This ID must correspond to a View.


Relationship Views

Schema path: Relationship Views

This element contains a list of the individual Views to which this relationship pertains.


Relationships

Schema path: Relationships

The Relationships structure contains one or more Relationship elements, each of which identifies an association between this structure, whether it is a Attack Pattern, Category, or Compound_Element and another structure.


Relevant Design Patterns

Schema path: Relevant Design Patterns

This element represents a container of one or more relevant design patterns. Relevant design patterns include both recommended design patterns, which increase the software's resistance or resilience to this type of attack, and non-recommended design patterns, which could leave the system especially susceptible to this type of attack.


Relevant Security Pattern

Schema path: Relevant Security Patterns > Relevant Security Pattern

A relevant security pattern provides resistance or resilience to this type of attack.


Relevant Security Patterns

Schema path: Relevant Security Patterns

This element represents a container of one or more relevant security patterns. A relevant security pattern provides resistance or resilience to this type of attack.


Relevant Security Requirement

Schema path: Relevant Security Requirements > Relevant Security Requirement

A relevant security requirement is a general security requirement that is relevant to this type of attack.


Relevant Security Requirements

Schema path: Relevant Security Requirements

This element represents a container of one or more relevant security requirements. A relevant security requirement is a general security requirement that is relevant to this type of attack.


Research Gap

Schema path: Research Gaps > Research Gap

This element identifies potential opportunities for the vulnerability research community to conduct further exploration of issues related to this attack pattern. It is intended to highlight parts of CAPEC that have not received sufficient attention from researchers. This should be filled out where appropriate for attack patterns and categories.


Research Gaps

Schema path: Research Gaps

This structure contains one or more Research gap elements, each of which identifies potential opportunities for the attack research community to conduct further exploration of issues related to this attack pattern. It is intended to highlight parts of CAPEC that have not received sufficient attention from researchers. This should be filled out where appropriate for attack patterns and categories.


Resources Required

Schema path: Resources Required

This field describes the resources (CPU cycles, IP addresses, tools, etc.) required by an attacker to effectively execute this type of attack.


Resources Required

Schema path: Resources Required

This element describes the resources (CPU cycles, IP addresses, tools, etc.) required by an attacker to effectively execute this type of attack.


Security Control

Schema path: Security Control

This field captures security controls for this attack step that describe ways in which the attack step can be detected, corrected, or prevented. These are presented from a defender’s point of view, where the defender may be a developer, tester, operations administrator, or other resource resisting the attacker.


Skill or Knowledge Level (Attacker Skill or Knowledge Required)

Schema path: Attacker Skills or Knowledge Required > Attacker Skill or Knowledge Required > Skill or Knowledge Level

This should be communicated on a rough scale (Low, Medium, High). For example: • Low - Basic computer familiarity • Low - Basic SQL knowledge • Medium - Moderate scripting and shell experience and ability to disassemble and decompile • High - Expert knowledge of LINUX kernel • High - Detailed knowledge of target software development practices and business context (former employee) • Etc.


Skill or Knowledge Level (Attacker Skill or Knowledge Required)

Schema path: Attacker Skills or Knowledge Required > Attacker Skill or Knowledge Required > Skill or Knowledge Level

This element reflects the level of knowledge or skill required to execute this type of attack on a scale of { Low, Medium, High }. USAGE: This element is used to represent the level with respect to a specified type of skill or knowledge, e.g., low - basic SQL knowledge, high - expert knowledge of LINUX kernel, etc.


Skill or Knowledge Type (Attacker Skill or Knowledge Required)

Schema path: Attacker Skills or Knowledge Required > Attacker Skill or Knowledge Required > Skill or Knowledge Type

This field provides contextual detail for the skill or knowledge level.


Skill or Knowledge Type (Attacker Skill or Knowledge Required)

Schema path: Attacker Skills or Knowledge Required > Attacker Skill or Knowledge Required > Skill or Knowledge Type

This element details the skill or knowledge required.


Solution or Mitigation

Schema path: Solutions and Mitigations > Solution or Mitigation

A solution or mitigation describes actions or approaches to prevent or mitigate the risk of this attack by improving the resilience of the target system, reduce its attack surface or to reduce the impact of the attack if it is successful.


Solutions and Mitigations

Schema path: Solutions and Mitigations

This element represents a container of one or more solutions or mitigations. A solution or mitigation describes actions or approaches to prevent or mitigate the risk of this attack by improving the resilience of the target system, reduce its attack surface or to reduce the impact of the attack if it is successful.


Stakeholder

Schema path: View Attributes > View Audience > Audience > Stakeholder

The Stakeholder element specifies what types of members of the CAPEC community might be interested in this view.


Stakeholder Description

Schema path: View Attributes > View Audience > Audience > Stakeholder Description

The Stakeholder_Description element provides some text describing what properties of this View this particular Stakeholder might find useful.


Status

Schema path: Status

The Status attribute defines the status level for this category.


Status

Schema path: Status

The Status attribute defines the status level for this compound element.


Status

Schema path: Status

The Status attribute defines the status level for this view.


Status (View)

Schema path: View > Status

The Status attribute defines the status level for this view.


Submission

Schema path: Content History > Submissions > Submission

This element houses the subelements which identify the submitter and the submitter's comments related to this entry. This element has a single attribute, Submission_Source, which provides a general idea of how the initial information for this entry was obtained, whether internal to the CAPEC team, external, donated, etc.


Submission Comment

Schema path: Content History > Submissions > Submission > Submission Comment

This element provides the author with a place to store any comments regarding the content of this attack pattern entry, such as assumptions made, reasons for omitting elements, contact information, pending questions, etc.


Submission Date

Schema path: Content History > Submissions > Submission > Submission Date

This element should provide the date on which this content was authored in YYYY-MM-DD format.


Submission Source

Schema path: Content History > Submissions > Submission > Submission Source

This attribute identifies how the initial information for this entry was obtained.


Submissions

Schema path: Content History > Submissions

This structure contains one or more Submission elements.


Submitter

Schema path: Content History > Submissions > Submission > Submitter

This element should contain the name of the author for this entry.


Submitter Organization

Schema path: Content History > Submissions > Submission > Submitter Organization

This element should identify the author's organization.


Summary

Schema path: Description > Summary

This element provides a summary description of the attack that includes the attack target and sequence of steps.


Target Attack Surface

Schema path: Target Attack Surface

This element characterizes the locations where an attacker interacts with the target system.


Technical Context

Schema path: Technical Context

This element characterizes the technical context where this pattern is applicable.


Term

Schema path: Alternate Terms > Alternate Term > Term

This element contains the actual term for the Alternate_Term element. Each term should follow the same conventions as the entry Name attribute.


Text

Schema path: Text

Presentation Element: This element is used to define a paragraph of text.


Text Title

Schema path: Text Title

Presentation Element: This element is used to definebold-faced title for a subsequent block of text.


Typical Likelihood of Exploit

Schema path: Typical Likelihood of Exploit

This element represents the typical likelihood that the attack will succeed, and provides a likelihood estimate and an explanation that qualifies the estimate. USAGE: This element is used to capture an overall typical average value for this type of attack with the understanding that it will not be completely accurate for all attacks.


Typical Severity

Schema path: Typical Severity

This element reflect the typical severity of an attack on a scale of {Very Low, Low, Medium, High, Very High}. USAGE: This element is used to capture an overall typical average value for this type of attack with the understanding that it will not be completely accurate for all attacks.


View

Schema path: View

Each View element represents a perspective with which one might look at the attack patterns in CAPEC.


View Attributes

Schema path: View Attributes

The View_Attributes structure is a collection of common elements which might be shared by all Views.


View Audience

Schema path: View Attributes > View Audience

The View_Audience element provides a reference to the targeted audiences or groups for this view.


View Filter

Schema path: View Attributes > View Filter

The View_Filter element holds an XSL query for identifying which elements are members of an implicit slice. This should only be present for implicit slices.


View Objective

Schema path: View Attributes > View Objective

The View_Objective element describes the perspective from which this View is constructed.


View Structure

Schema path: View Attributes > View Structure

The View_Structure element describes how this view is being constructed. Valid values are: Implicit Slice = a slice based on a filter criteria; Explicit Slice = a slice based on arbitrary membership, as defined by specific relationships between entries; Graph = a bounded graphical slice based on ChildOf relationships.


Vulnerability Description

Schema path: Related Vulnerabilities > Related Vulnerability > Vulnerability Description

This element contains a short textual description of the specific related vulnerability taken from the industry standard vulnerability listing.


Vulnerability ID

Schema path: Related Vulnerabilities > Related Vulnerability > Vulnerability ID

The element contains the Common Vulnerabilities and Explosures (CVE) or US-CERT number identifying the vulnerability.


Weakness Relationship Type (Related Weakness)

Schema path: Related Weaknesses > Related Weakness > Weakness Relationship Type

This field describes the nature of the relationship between this weakness and the attack pattern. Weaknesses that are specifically targeted by the attack are of type “Targeted”. Weaknesses which are not specifically targeted but whose presence may increase the likelihood of the attack succeeding or the impact of the attack if it does succeed are of type “Secondary”.


Weakness Relationship Type (Related Weakness)

Schema path: Related Weaknesses > Related Weakness > Weakness Relationship Type

This element describes the nature of the relationship between the attack pattern and the software weakness, represented as the enumerated list {Targeted, Secondary}. USAGE: This element is used to indicate whether the weakness is targeted or secondary. If the attack is designed to exploit the weakness, then that weakness is Targeted. A weaknesses whose presence may increase the likelihood of the attack succeeding or the impact of the attack if it does succeed is Secondary.


type (Indicator)

Schema path: Indicator > type

Each indicator has a mandatory type attribute that can be one of the values “Positive,” “Negative,” or “Inconclusive.” For example, a positive indicator of susceptibility to parameter tampering is the existence of parameters in the URL. Although it does not guarantee susceptibility, it indicates a cause for further examination. A negative indicator for the technique of privilege escalation is a lack of credentials and user identifiers in an application. Again, this is not a conclusive measure of resistance to attack, but an indicator that the attack step technique is unlikely to bear significant fruit. An inconclusive indicator of susceptibility to dynamic code injection is a page whose URL ends in .jsp, .asp, or .do but which has no visible explicit parameters. Such URLs typically indicate dynamic processing, but since no visible parameters are passed, it is inconclusive whether dynamic code could be injected into the application.


type (Outcome)

Schema path: Outcome > type

An outcome has a mandatory type attribute that can be one of the values “success,” “failure,” or “inconclusive.” It indicates what results of executing the attack step techniques should be considered successes, which should be considered failures, and which ones are inconclusive. Outcomes’ successes are determined relative to the attacker’s point of view. It is a success if the attack step got the attacker closer to his goal of attacking the application. It is a failure if the attacker got no closer to his goal.


type (Security Control)

Schema path: Security Control > type

Each security control has a mandatory type attribute that can be one of the values “Detective,” “Corrective,” or “Preventative.” Detective controls detect an attacker’s activities in the attack step, whether the activities are successful or not. Corrective controls attempt to mitigate an attacker’s success by responding to a successful outcome. They are not related to or normalized against outcomes. Preventative controls are those that make the attack step unlikely or impossible to succeed.


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Page Last Updated or Reviewed: October 28, 2016