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Home > CAPEC List > CAPEC-645: Use of Captured Tickets (Pass The Ticket) (Version 3.9)  

CAPEC-645: Use of Captured Tickets (Pass The Ticket)

Attack Pattern ID: 645
Abstraction: Detailed
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+ Description
An adversary uses stolen Kerberos tickets to access systems/resources that leverage the Kerberos authentication protocol. The Kerberos authentication protocol centers around a ticketing system which is used to request/grant access to services and to then access the requested services. An adversary can obtain any one of these tickets (e.g. Service Ticket, Ticket Granting Ticket, Silver Ticket, or Golden Ticket) to authenticate to a system/resource without needing the account's credentials. Depending on the ticket obtained, the adversary may be able to access a particular resource or generate TGTs for any account within an Active Directory Domain.
+ Likelihood Of Attack


+ Typical Severity


+ Relationships
Section HelpThis table shows the other attack patterns and high level categories that are related to this attack pattern. These relationships are defined as ChildOf and ParentOf, and give insight to similar items that may exist at higher and lower levels of abstraction. In addition, relationships such as CanFollow, PeerOf, and CanAlsoBe are defined to show similar attack patterns that the user may want to explore.
ChildOfStandard Attack PatternStandard Attack Pattern - A standard level attack pattern in CAPEC is focused on a specific methodology or technique used in an attack. It is often seen as a singular piece of a fully executed attack. A standard attack pattern is meant to provide sufficient details to understand the specific technique and how it attempts to accomplish a desired goal. A standard level attack pattern is a specific type of a more abstract meta level attack pattern.652Use of Known Kerberos Credentials
CanPrecedeMeta Attack PatternMeta Attack Pattern - A meta level attack pattern in CAPEC is a decidedly abstract characterization of a specific methodology or technique used in an attack. A meta attack pattern is often void of a specific technology or implementation and is meant to provide an understanding of a high level approach. A meta level attack pattern is a generalization of related group of standard level attack patterns. Meta level attack patterns are particularly useful for architecture and design level threat modeling exercises.151Identity Spoofing
Section HelpThis table shows the views that this attack pattern belongs to and top level categories within that view.
+ Prerequisites
The adversary needs physical access to the victim system.
The use of a third-party credential harvesting tool.
+ Skills Required
[Level: Low]
Determine if Kerberos authentication is used on the server.
[Level: High]
The adversary uses a third-party tool to obtain the necessary tickets to execute the attack.
+ Consequences
Section HelpThis table specifies different individual consequences associated with the attack pattern. The Scope identifies the security property that is violated, while the Impact describes the negative technical impact that arises if an adversary succeeds in their attack. The Likelihood provides information about how likely the specific consequence is expected to be seen relative to the other consequences in the list. For example, there may be high likelihood that a pattern will be used to achieve a certain impact, but a low likelihood that it will be exploited to achieve a different impact.
Gain Privileges
+ Mitigations
Reset the built-in KRBTGT account password twice to invalidate the existence of any current Golden Tickets and any tickets derived from them.
Monitor system and domain logs for abnormal access.
+ Example Instances
Bronze Butler (also known as Tick), has been shown to leverage forged Kerberos Ticket Granting Tickets (TGTs) and Ticket Granting Service (TGS) tickets to maintain administrative access on a number of systems. [REF-584]
+ Taxonomy Mappings
Section HelpCAPEC mappings to ATT&CK techniques leverage an inheritance model to streamline and minimize direct CAPEC/ATT&CK mappings. Inheritance of a mapping is indicated by text stating that the parent CAPEC has relevant ATT&CK mappings. Note that the ATT&CK Enterprise Framework does not use an inheritance model as part of the mapping to CAPEC.
Relevant to the ATT&CK taxonomy mapping (also see parent)
Entry IDEntry Name
1550.003Use Alternate Authentication Material:Pass The Ticket
+ References
[REF-584] "BRONZE BUTLER Targets Japanese Enterprises". Secureworks® Counter Threat Unit™ Threat Intelligence. 2017-10-12. <>. URL validated: 2020-05-15.
+ Content History
Submission DateSubmitterOrganization
(Version 2.12)
CAPEC Content Team
Modification DateModifierOrganization
(Version 3.3)
CAPEC Content TeamThe MITRE Corporation
Updated Description, Example_Instances, References, Related_Attack_Patterns, Related_Weaknesses, Taxonomy_Mappings
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Page Last Updated or Reviewed: July 31, 2018