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CAPEC-162: Manipulating Hidden Fields

Attack Pattern ID: 162
Abstraction: Detailed
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+ Description
An adversary exploits a weakness in the server's trust of client-side processing by modifying data on the client-side, such as price information, and then submitting this data to the server, which processes the modified data. For example, eShoplifting is a data manipulation attack against an on-line merchant during a purchasing transaction. The manipulation of price, discount or quantity fields in the transaction message allows the adversary to acquire items at a lower cost than the merchant intended. The adversary performs a normal purchasing transaction but edits hidden fields within the HTML form response that store price or other information to give themselves a better deal. The merchant then uses the modified pricing information in calculating the cost of the selected items.
+ Typical Severity


+ Relationships
Section HelpThis table shows the other attack patterns and high level categories that are related to this attack pattern. These relationships are defined as ChildOf and ParentOf, and give insight to similar items that may exist at higher and lower levels of abstraction. In addition, relationships such as CanFollow, PeerOf, and CanAlsoBe are defined to show similar attack patterns that the user may want to explore.
ChildOfStandard Attack PatternStandard Attack Pattern - A standard level attack pattern in CAPEC is focused on a specific methodology or technique used in an attack. It is often seen as a singular piece of a fully executed attack. A standard attack pattern is meant to provide sufficient details to understand the specific technique and how it attempts to accomplish a desired goal. A standard level attack pattern is a specific type of a more abstract meta level attack pattern.77Manipulating User-Controlled Variables
Section HelpThis table shows the views that this attack pattern belongs to and top level categories within that view.
+ Execution Flow
  1. Probe target web application: The adversary first probes the target web application to find all possible pages that can be visited on the website.

    Use a spidering tool to follow and record all links
    Use a proxy tool to record all links visited during a manual traversal of the web application.
  2. Find hidden fields: Once the web application has been traversed, the adversary looks for all hidden HTML fields present in the client-side.

    Use the inspect tool on all modern browsers and filter for the keyword "hidden"
    Specifically look for hidden fields inside form elements.
  1. Send modified hidden fields to server-side: Once the adversary has found hidden fields in the client-side, they will modify the values of these hidden fields one by one and then interact with the web application so that this data is sent to the server-side. The adversary observes the response from the server to determine if the values of each hidden field are being validated.

  1. Manipulate hidden fields: Once the adversary has determined which hidden fields are not being validated by the server, they will manipulate them to change the normal behavior of the web application in a way that benefits the adversary.

    Manipulate a hidden field inside a form element and then submit the form so that the manipulated data is sent to the server.
+ Prerequisites
The targeted site must contain hidden fields to be modified.
The targeted site must not validate the hidden fields with backend processing.
+ Resources Required
The adversary must have the ability to modify hidden fields by editing the HTTP response to the server.
+ Content History
Submission DateSubmitterOrganization
(Version 2.6)
CAPEC Content TeamThe MITRE Corporation
Modification DateModifierOrganization
(Version 2.8)
CAPEC Content TeamThe MITRE Corporation
Updated Related_Attack_Patterns
(Version 2.9)
CAPEC Content TeamThe MITRE Corporation
Updated Related_Attack_Patterns
(Version 2.11)
CAPEC Content TeamThe MITRE Corporation
Updated Attack_Prerequisites, Description Summary, Resources_Required
(Version 3.7)
CAPEC Content TeamThe MITRE Corporation
Updated Execution_Flow
Previous Entry Names
Change DatePrevious Entry Name
(Version 2.8)
Manipulating hidden fields to change the normal flow of transactions (eShoplifting)
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Page Last Updated or Reviewed: July 31, 2018