Home > CAPEC List > CAPEC-611: BitSquatting (Version 3.0)  

CAPEC-611: BitSquatting

Attack Pattern ID: 611
Abstraction: Detailed
Status: Draft
Presentation Filter:
+ Description
An adversary registers a domain name one bit different than a trusted domain. A BitSquatting attack leverages random errors in memory to direct Internet traffic to adversary-controlled destinations. BitSquatting requires no exploitation or complicated reverse engineering, and is operating system and architecture agnostic. Experimental observations show that BitSquatting popular websites could redirect non-trivial amounts of Internet traffic to a malicious entity.
+ Likelihood Of Attack


+ Typical Severity


+ Relationships

The table(s) below shows the other attack patterns and high level categories that are related to this attack pattern. These relationships are defined as ChildOf, ParentOf, MemberOf and give insight to similar items that may exist at higher and lower levels of abstraction. In addition, relationships such as CanFollow, PeerOf, and CanAlsoBe are defined to show similar attack patterns that the user may want to explore.

+ Relevant to the view "Mechanisms of Attack" (CAPEC-1000)
ChildOfStandard Attack PatternStandard Attack Pattern - A standard level attack pattern in CAPEC is focused on a specific methodology or technique used in an attack. It is often seen as a singular piece of a fully executed attack. A standard attack pattern is meant to provide sufficient details to understand the specific technique and how it attempts to accomplish a desired goal. A standard level attack pattern is a specific type of a more abstract meta level attack pattern.616Establish Rogue Location
+ Execution Flow
  1. Determine target website: The adversary first determines which website to impersonate, generally one that is trusted and receives a consistent amount of traffic. Research popular or high traffic websites.

    Research popular or high traffic websites.
  1. Impersonate trusted domain: In order to impersonate the trusted domain, the adversary needs to register the BitSquatted URL. Register the BitSquatted domain.

    Register the BitSquatted domain.
  1. Wait for a user to visit the domain: Finally, the adversary simply waits for a user to be unintentionally directed to the BitSquatted domain. Simply wait for an error in memory to occur, redirecting the user to the malicious domain.

    Simply wait for an error in memory to occur, redirecting the user to the malicious domain.
+ Prerequisites
An adversary requires knowledge of popular or high traffic domains, that could be used to deceive potential targets.
+ Skills Required
[Level: Low]
Adversaries must be able to register DNS hostnames/URL’s.
+ Consequences

The table below specifies different individual consequences associated with the attack pattern. The Scope identifies the security property that is violated, while the Impact describes the negative technical impact that arises if an adversary succeeds in their attack. The Likelihood provides information about how likely the specific consequence is expected to be seen relative to the other consequences in the list. For example, there may be high likelihood that a pattern will be used to achieve a certain impact, but a low likelihood that it will be exploited to achieve a different impact.

+ Mitigations
Authenticate all servers and perform redundant checks when using DNS hostnames.
When possible, use error-correcting (ECC) memory in local devices as non-ECC memory is significantly more vulnerable to faults.
+ References
[REF-485] Artem Dinaburg. "Bitsquatting: DNS Hijacking without exploitation". Raytheon. <http://media.blackhat.com/bh-us-11/Dinaburg/BH_US_11_Dinaburg_Bitsquatting_WP.pdf>.
+ Content History
Submission DateSubmitterOrganization
2015-11-09CAPEC Content TeamThe MITRE Corporation
Modification DateModifierOrganization
2017-08-04CAPEC Content TeamThe MITRE Corporation
Updated Architectural_Paradigms, Attack_Motivation-Consequences, Attack_Phases, Attack_Prerequisites, Description, Description Summary, Methods_of_Attack, Typical_Likelihood_of_Exploit, Typical_Severity
2018-07-31CAPEC Content TeamThe MITRE Corporation
Updated Attack_Phases

More information is available — Please select a different filter.
Page Last Updated or Reviewed: July 31, 2018