Common Attack Pattern Enumeration and Classification
A Community Resource for Identifying and Understanding Attacks
An adversary sends a malicious ("NXDOMAIN" ("No such domain") code, or DNS A record) response to a targets route request before a legitimate resolver can. This technique requires an On-path or In-path device that can monitor and respond to the targets DNS requests. This attack differs from BGP Tampering in that it directly responds to requests made by the target instead of polluting the routing the targets infrastructure uses.
Below-Recursive DNS Poisoning: When an On/In-path device between a recursive DNS server and a user sends a malicious ("NXDOMAIN" ("No such domain") code, or DNS A record ) response before a legitimate resolver can.
Above-Recursive DNS Poisoning: When an On/In-path device between an authority server (e.g., government-managed) and a recursive DNS server sends a malicious ("NXDOMAIN" ("No such domain")code, or a DNS record) response before a legitimate resolver can.
Design: Avoid dependence on DNS
Design: Include "hosts file"/IP address in the application
Implementation: Utilize a .onion domain with Tor support
[R.41.1] [REF-2] John-Paul Verkamp and Minaxi Gupta. "Inferring Mechanics of Web Censorship Around the World". USENIX. 2012.
[R.41.1] [REF-2] Anonymous. "Towards a Comprehensive Picture of the Great Firewall's DNS Censorship". USENIX. 2014.
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