An adversary attacks a target by providing input that causes an application to read beyond the boundary of a defined buffer. This typically occurs when a value influencing where to start or stop reading is set to reflect positions outside of the valid memory location of the buffer. This type of attack may result in exposure of sensitive information, a system crash, or arbitrary code execution.
For this type of attack to be successful, a few prerequisites must be met. First, the targeted software must be written in a language that enables fine grained buffer control. (e.g., c, c++) Second, the targeted software must actually perform buffer operations and inadequately perform bounds-checking on those buffer operations. Finally, the adversary must have the capability to influence the input that guides these buffer operations.
Typical Likelihood of Exploit
By reading outside the boundary of the intended buffer, the adversary is potentially able to see any data that is stored on the disk. This could include secret keys, personal information, and sensitive files.
DoS: crash / exit / restart
Depending on the use of the target buffer, an application or system crash can be achieved.
Off-by-one error in the flask_security_avc_cachestats function in xsm/flask/flask_op.c in Xen 4.2.x and 4.3.x, when the maximum number of physical CPUs are in use, allows local users to cause a denial of service (host crash) or obtain sensitive information from hypervisor memory by leveraging a FLASK_AVC_CACHESTAT hypercall, which triggers a buffer over-read.
The IGMP implementation on Cisco Wireless LAN Controller (WLC) devices 4.x, 5.x, 6.x, 7.0 before 126.96.36.199, 7.1, 7.2, and 7.3, when IGMPv3 Snooping is enabled, allows remote attackers to cause a denial of service (memory over-read and device restart) via a crafted field in an IGMPv3 message, aka Bug ID CSCuh33240.
The (1) TLS and (2) DTLS implementations in OpenSSL 1.0.1 before 1.0.1g do not properly handle Heartbeat Extension packets, which allows remote attackers to obtain sensitive information from process memory via crafted packets that trigger a buffer over-read, as demonstrated by reading private keys, related to d1_both.c and t1_lib.c, aka the Heartbleed bug.
The scan function in ext/date/lib/parse_iso_intervals.c in PHP through 5.5.6 does not properly restrict creation of DateInterval objects, which might allow remote attackers to cause a denial of service (heap-based buffer over-read) via a crafted interval specification.
TCPDUMP 3.8.1 and earlier allows remote attackers to cause a denial of service (crash) via ISAKMP packets containing a Delete payload with a large number of SPI's, which causes an out-of-bounds read, as demonstrated by the Striker ISAKMP Protocol Test Suite.
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Page Last Updated or Reviewed:
August 04, 2017
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