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CAPEC-251: Local Code Inclusion

Local Code Inclusion
Definition in a New Window Definition in a New Window
Attack Pattern ID: 251
Abstraction: Standard
Status: Stable
Completeness: Complete
Presentation Filter:
+ Summary

The attacker forces an application to load arbitrary code files from the local machine. The attacker could use this to try to load old versions of library files that have known vulnerabilities, to load files that the attacker placed on the local machine during a prior attack, or to otherwise change the functionality of the targeted application in unexpected ways.

+ Attack Prerequisites
  • The targeted application must have a bug that allows an adversary to control which code file is loaded at some juncture.

  • Some variants of this attack may require that old versions of some code files be present and in predictable locations.

+ Typical Severity


+ Resources Required

The adversary needs to have enough access to the target application to control the identity of a locally included file. The attacker may also need to be able to upload arbitrary code files to the target machine, although any location for these files may be acceptable.

+ Solutions and Mitigations

Implementation: Avoid passing user input to filesystem or framework API. If necessary to do so, implement specific, white-list approach.

+ Attack Motivation-Consequences
ScopeTechnical ImpactNote
Execute unauthorized code or commands
Through local code inclusion, the adversary compromises the integrity of the application.
Read application data
An attacker may leverage local code inclusion in order to print sensitive data to a page, such as hidden configuration files or or password hashes.
+ References
[R.251.1] ATT&CK Project. "DLL Injection (1055)". MITRE. <https://attack.mitre.org/wiki/DLL_injection>.
+ Content History
CAPEC Content TeamThe MITRE Corporation2014-06-23Internal_CAPEC_Team
CAPEC Content TeamThe MITRE Corporation2015-11-09Updated ReferencesInternal
CAPEC Content TeamThe MITRE Corporation2017-08-04Updated Attack_Motivation-Consequences, Attack_Prerequisites, Resources_Required, Solutions_and_MitigationsInternal

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Page Last Updated or Reviewed: August 04, 2017