Home > CAPEC List > CAPEC-14: Client-side Injection-induced Buffer Overflow (Version 2.6)  

CAPEC-14: Client-side Injection-induced Buffer Overflow

 
Client-side Injection-induced Buffer Overflow
Definition in a New Window Definition in a New Window
Attack Pattern ID: 14
Abstraction: Detailed
Status: Draft
Completeness: Complete
+ Description

Summary

This type of attack exploits a buffer overflow vulnerability in targeted client software through injection of malicious content from a custom-built hostile service.

Attack Execution Flow

Explore
  1. The attacker creates a custom hostile service

  2. The attacker acquires information about the kind of client attaching to her hostile service to determine if it contains an exploitable buffer overflow vulnerability.

Exploit
  1. The attacker intentionally feeds malicious data to the client to exploit the buffer overflow vulnerability that she has uncovered.

  2. The attacker leverages the exploit to execute arbitrary code or to cause a denial of service.

+ Attack Prerequisites
  • The targeted client software communicates with an external server.

  • The targeted client software has a buffer overflow vulnerability.

+ Typical Severity

High

+ Typical Likelihood of Exploit

Likelihood: Medium

+ Methods of Attack
  • API Abuse
  • Injection
+ Examples-Instances

Description

Authors often use <EMBED> tags in HTML documents. For example

<EMBED TYPE="audio/midi" SRC="/path/file.mid" AUTOSTART="true">

If an attacker supplies an overly long path in the SRC= directive, the mshtml.dll component will suffer a buffer overflow. This is a standard example of content in a Web page being directed to exploit a faulty module in the system. There are potentially thousands of different ways data can propagate into a given system, thus these kinds of attacks will continue to be found in the wild.

+ Attacker Skills or Knowledge Required

Skill or Knowledge Level: Low

To achieve a denial of service, an attacker can simply overflow a buffer by inserting a long string into an attacker-modifiable injection vector.

Skill or Knowledge Level: High

Exploiting a buffer overflow to inject malicious code into the stack of a software system or even the heap requires a more in-depth knowledge and higher skill level.

+ Probing Techniques

Description

The server may look like a valid server, but in reality it may be a hostile server aimed at fooling the client software. For instance the server can use honey pots and get the client to download malicious code.

Description

Once engaged with the client, the hostile server may attempt to scan the client's host for open ports and potential vulnerabilities in the client software.

Description

The hostile server may also attempt to install and run malicious code on the client software. That malicious code can be used to scan the client software for buffer overflow.

+ Indicators-Warnings of Attack

Description

An example of indicator is when the client software crashes after executing code downloaded from a hostile server.

+ Solutions and Mitigations

The client software should not install untrusted code from a non-authenticated server.

The client software should have the latest patches and should be audited for vulnerabilities before being used to communicate with potentially hostile servers.

Perform input validation for length of buffer inputs.

Use a language or compiler that performs automatic bounds checking.

Use an abstraction library to abstract away risky APIs. Not a complete solution.

Compiler-based canary mechanisms such as StackGuard, ProPolice and the Microsoft Visual Studio /GS flag. Unless this provides automatic bounds checking, it is not a complete solution.

Ensure all buffer uses are consistently bounds-checked.

Use OS-level preventative functionality. Not a complete solution.

+ Attack Motivation-Consequences
ScopeTechnical ImpactNote
Confidentiality
Read memory
Integrity
Modify memory
Availability
DoS: resource consumption (memory)
Denial of Service
Confidentiality
Integrity
Availability
Execute unauthorized code or commands
Run Arbitrary Code
+ Payload

Attacker-supplied data potentially containing malicious code.

+ Activation Zone

When the function returns control to the main program, it jumps to the return address portion of the stack frame. Unfortunately that return address may have been overwritten by the overflowed buffer and the address may contain a call to a privileged command or to malicious code.

+ Payload Activation Impact

Description

The most common are remote code execution or denial of service.

+ Purposes
  • Penetration
+ CIA Impact
Confidentiality Impact: HighIntegrity Impact: HighAvailability Impact: High
+ Technical Context
Architectural Paradigms
Client-Server
Other
Frameworks
All
Platforms
All
Languages
All
+ References
[R.14.1] [REF-2] G. Hoglund and G. McGraw. "Exploiting Software: How to Break Code". Addison-Wesley. February 2004.
[R.14.2] [REF-3] "Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE)". CWE-119: Buffer Errors. Draft. The MITRE Corporation. 2007. <http://cwe.mitre.org/data/definitions/119.html>.
+ Content History
Submissions
SubmitterOrganizationDateSource
CAPEC Content TeamThe MITRE Corporation2014-06-23Internal_CAPEC_Team

Page Last Updated: July 23, 2014